Archeologists find 7,000-years-old commercial seal impression, oldest ever to be found in Israel

June 10, 2021 by TPS
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A team of archaeologists from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem made a rare discovery when they unearthed a small clay seal impression dating back some 7,000 years.

Photo by Vladimir Nichen

The seal, with two different geometric stamps imprinted on it, was discovered in Tel Tsaf, a prehistoric village located in Israel’s Beit She’an Valley.

The discovery was made as part of a dig that took place between 2004 and 2007 and was led by HU’s Professor Yosef Garfinkel along with two of his students, Professor David Ben Shlomo and Dr. Michael Freikman, both of whom are now researchers at Ariel University.

Some 150 clay seals were found at the site, with one being particularly rare and of distinct, with historic importance.

Seals, also known as bulla, are made of a small piece of clay and were used to seal and sign letters and to prevent others from reading their contents.

The sealing found in Tel Tsaf is particularly significant because it is the first evidence of the use of seals to mark shipments or to close silos or barns. When a barn door was opened, its seal impression would break – a telltale sign that someone had been there and that the contents inside had been touched or taken.

“Even today, similar types of sealing are used to prevent tampering and theft,” explained Garfinkel. “It turns out that this was already in use 7,000 years ago by landowners and local administrators to protect their property.”

Measuring less than a centimetre wide, the fragment was found in good condition due to the dry climate of the Beit She’an valley.  The sealing is marked by symmetrical lines.

While many seals found in Jerusalem dating to the First Temple era about 2,600 years ago include a personal name and sometimes biblical figures, the sealing from Tel Tsaf is from a prehistoric era when writing was not yet in use. These older seals were decorated with geometric shapes instead of letters. The fact that there are two different stamps on the seal impression may indicate a form of commercial activity where the two different people were involved in the transaction.

The seal underwent extensive analysis before researchers could determine that it was indeed a seal impression. Garfinkel said that this is the earliest evidence that seals were used in Israel approximately 7,000 years ago to sign deliveries and keep storerooms closed.

While seals have been found in that region dating back to 8,500 years ago, seal impressions, the bulla, from that period have not been found.

Based on an analysis of the sealing’s clay, the researchers found it was not locally sourced but came from a location at least 10 kilometres away.

Other archeological finds at the site revealed evidence that the Tel Tsaf residents were in contact with populations far beyond ancient Israel.

“At this site, we have evidence of contact with peoples from Mesopotamia, Turkey, Egypt and Caucasia,” Garfinkel added. “There is no prehistoric site anywhere in the Middle East that reveals evidence of such long-distance trade in exotic items as what we found at this particular site.”

The site also yielded clues that the area was home to people of considerable wealth who built up large stores of ingredients and materials, indicating considerable social development. This evidence points to Tel Tsaf as having been a key position in the region that served both local communities and people passing through.

“We hope that continued excavations at Tel Tsaf and other places from the same time period will yield additional evidence to help us understand the impact of a regional authority in the southern Levant,” concluded Garfinkel.



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